Middle Ages – Karolingische Klosterstadt http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/ Sat, 15 Jan 2022 06:00:30 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/karolingische-klosterstadt-icon-150x150.png Middle Ages – Karolingische Klosterstadt http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/ 32 32 When leaders reach their expiration date http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/when-leaders-reach-their-expiration-date/ Sat, 15 Jan 2022 06:00:30 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/when-leaders-reach-their-expiration-date/
Boris squirms, Theresa watches – wearing THIS necklace

I can’t remember a sitting politician being so humiliated while keeping his pants on.

“Sorry, sorry, sorry. I wish things had been done differently. I’m contrite. It wasn’t like I thought. Sorry. Again.

“I want to make amends, explain myself.

“My God, if I had thought for a moment that these people who were chatting, drinking and munching in my garden were having a party, I would never have allowed it. My implicit understanding was that this was a meeting of job.

It may have worked at Eton when he got scratched. Whether that works for someone who is prime minister is another matter.

For a politician, being hated by certain MPs is normal. But Boris Johnson is now openly despised, and not just by the opposition.

On the benches, Theresa May wore THIS necklace. The one with the big attack beads she wore during the tense Brexit debates (unless she had whole stocks of them). Since she was wearing a mask, it was hard to tell if she was smiling or grimacing.

Strangely enough, trust in politicians. There was that golden age when you could trust them. I think it was in the Middle Ages.

Victorians? They can all be overruled and invalidated, having been “elected” by a selective, elitist, sexist and sometimes corrupt, all-male, snobbish voting system, of which we should arguably be ashamed.

This means that we must look to more modern times to trust politics.

Tony Blair led the nation into a war on a false premise – some would say a lie – that resulted in tens of thousands dead and hundreds of thousands of men, women and children displaced and a country left in ruins .

The only people forced to resign as a result were journalists trying to find out the truth.

David Cameron and his sidekick, a corrupt French criminal called Nicolas Sarkozy, have joined forces to take us into a war in Libya that has left thousands dead, tens of thousands of Libyans displaced or ethnically cleansed, and entire armies of families living in poverty and misery trying to flee the shores by dangerous boat, with many drowning in the attempt.

The Cameron-Sarkozy adventure, based on a very broad interpretation of a UN resolution, and also involving flagrant violations by the French of a UN arms embargo, had a profound consequence for peace world. This so displeased the Russians, who felt betrayed by what they saw as Western duplicity, that they said “we won’t be fooled anymore”.

This has sparked a new Cold War which is a much more immediate threat than global warming, but is not as fashionable and therefore not covered as much.

Meanwhile, Libya was turned into a failed state and the Islamic State gained a foothold.

Then there was the Bercow Parliament in which we learned that voters’ trust in politicians is not reciprocated by politicians’ trust in voters.

Boris Johnson did not start a war. He went to a drink – and it looks like that will see him on his ear.

Good bye Boris. A fun figure for a while. But the most tragic fate for a clown is when the audience stops laughing.

Recipe of the week: Lamb Korma.

Method. Take the roast lamb left over from the Sunday roast, remove the meat from the bone and dice it. Put in slow cooker with other stuff. Look in the kitchen cupboard for a jar of korma sauce, add it and stir everything.

Turn on the slow cooker. Medium heat will do.

I wonder why your concoction looks a little funny. Stir again. Let cook a little. The concoction always looks a bit funny. Look for the korma sauce lid and check out. Put on glasses and consult again. “Best before date: May 2012.”

Put all the contents in the trash and catch the prepared meals.

Carefully search the kitchen cupboards in the spirit of food archaeology, paying particular attention to items pushed to the bottom and genuinely rusty cans.

Can anyone beat an expiration date of March 2001?

It was curry powder, or something.

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Vaccine policy sparks debate at Chippewa Hills board meeting http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/vaccine-policy-sparks-debate-at-chippewa-hills-board-meeting/ Thu, 13 Jan 2022 10:57:17 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/vaccine-policy-sparks-debate-at-chippewa-hills-board-meeting/ REMUS – Parents from Chippewa Hills and some faculty members have expressed their opinion this week on school decisions regarding the implementation of COVID-19 policies, including potential vaccination mandates for staff and guidelines quarantine.

Monday’s meeting, which lasted just over two hours, saw more than 30 people address school board members. One of the items on the board’s agenda included current COVID-19 cases, quarantine updates and potential future terms of reference.

Currently, Chippewa Hills’ masking policy is choice-based and does not require vaccination.


Participants expressed concern largely about the potential of an immunization mandate for staff members, citing issues of discrimination.

Melissa Nelson, secretary at Barryton Elementary, said her concerns were about dividing people based on immunization status.

“The definition of discrimination is the unfair and prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, including on the basis of race, age, sex, and I would add medical choices, in this case non vaccinated, ”Nelson said. “The definition of coercion is the practice of persuading someone to do something by using force or threats, both of which have been found to be unconstitutional. Whatever the reasons why someone does not get the vaccine with the so called vaccines, you can’t think some individuals can be discriminated against then.

Nelson then questioned the effectiveness of the vaccine promotion for staff and students.

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New book | Armenian communities in Persia / Iran: history, commerce, culture http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/new-book-armenian-communities-in-persia-iran-history-commerce-culture/ Tue, 11 Jan 2022 14:20:44 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/new-book-armenian-communities-in-persia-iran-history-commerce-culture/

LOS ANGELES, CA — Mazda Publishers Announced the Release of the Armenian communities of Persia / Iran: history, commerce, culture (670 pages, retail $ 45.00 plus applicable taxes). This is the fifteenth and final volume in the series “Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces”, edited by Professor Richard G. Hovannisian of the University of California and Chapman University.

The volume, covering the Armenian presence in Iran from antiquity to contemporary times, includes Armenian-Iranian relations from the pre-Christian era to the Middle Ages, the districts of Makou and Tabriz, with the monasteries of St. Thaddeus, Saint-Stépanos, and Tsortsor, the importance of the Persian Azarbayjan / Atrpatakan in the Armenian and Iranian revolutionary movements, and the displacement and massacres of the Christian inhabitants of the districts of Urmia, Salmast and Khoy during the Turkish offensives of the First War world, as well as the relief direction of Archbishop Nerses Melik-Tangian of Atrpatakan (Tabriz).

Another section assesses the impressive place of the all-Armenian Municipality of New Julfa in Iranian-Armenian history, with its painters and artisans, unique churches and monastic complex (the Vank), its merchants who occupied an important place in international trade networks from East Asia to Russia and Western Europe, and its prominent Armenian theater. The volume ends with a pictorial essay presenting the paintings of New Julfa and the outskirts of the famous artist Julfan Sumbat. Other chapters assess the interactions between the current Armenian rulers in Tehran with the Iranian authorities and the socio-economic integration of Armenian Iranians in Southern California. The volume is enhanced by numerous color illustrations.

This fifteenth volume is the only one in the series that focuses on Armenian communities outside the Ottoman Empire and is dedicated to Dr. Vartiter K. Hovannisian, a constant companion and professional collaborator since the very beginning of the series and long before. .

Copies can be ordered from Mazda Publishers, Abril and Sardarabad bookstores in Glendale, from the NAASR bookstore in Belmont MA, or (at an introductory promotional price of $ 32 in the US) from Daron Kevorkian at [email protected].

Guest contributor

Guest contributions to Armenian Weekly are informative articles or press releases written and submitted by members of the community.

Guest contributor

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Understanding the history of schizophrenia http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/understanding-the-history-of-schizophrenia/ Sat, 08 Jan 2022 03:06:10 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/understanding-the-history-of-schizophrenia/

From diagnosis to treatment, understanding the history of schizophrenia can help us understand how this condition is viewed today.

In 1900, Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler coined the term “schizophrenia”. Derived from Greek roots, the word contains “schizo” which means “divided” and “phren”, which means “spirit”.

According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness and World Health Organization, an estimated 1.5 million people could be living with schizophrenia in the United States and 20 millions worldwide.

Schizophrenia is frequently stigmatized and misunderstood, often more so than other mental health problems. A 2010 study found that it may be common for people with schizophrenia to be perceived as dangerous, although other research suggests that most people living with the condition are generally non-violent.

Examining the origins of the disease can be an important starting point in changing the current stigma and public perception of schizophrenia.

The history of schizophrenia is loaded with ideas about spiritual causes and treatments that some may consider unethical or inhumane.

This story may be a major contributor to the current stigma surrounding schizophrenia and people living with the disease.

According to Tracy McDonough PhD, professor of psychology and chair of the Schizophrenia Oral History Project, a nonprofit organization dedicated to archiving the life stories of people with schizophrenia, “[the stigma of schizophrenia] is linked to historical beliefs about people with schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia in Antiquity

Theories about the causes and possible treatments of schizophrenia-like mental health problems date back to ancient times.

Ancient spirits frequently perceived the cause of mental illnesses such as schizophrenia as a punishment from the gods, or perhaps as a possession by evil spirits and demons. References to schizophrenia-like “madness” go back to the Old Testament, and even further.

Ancient egypt

A condition similar to schizophrenia is described in “The Book of Hearts”, a chapter devoted to mental health disorders in “The Ebers Papyrus”, an ancient Egyptian medical manuscript dating from 1550 BC.

According to Esme Wejin Wang, a best-selling author living with schizoaffective disorder, the ancient Egyptians attributed “psychosis to the dangerous influence of poison in the heart and uterus.”

Ancient Greece

Similar to the Egyptians, Hippocrates, “father of medicine” from ancient Greek, believed that conditions such as schizophrenia were rooted in biology, rather than spiritual or metaphysical causes.

According to Hippocrates, mental health disorders were caused by imbalances in the “four bodily humors” and could be treated with:

Middle Ages

Symptoms associated with schizophrenia – such as psychosis and hallucinations – were generally considered evidence of demonic possession and sin throughout Europe during the Middle Ages.

However, some medieval sources indicate that these mental health problems are caused by:

  • imbalances in the body
  • diet and alcohol consumption
  • overwork
  • mourning and loss

The institutionalization of people with mental disorders like schizophrenia in asylums or “mad towers” officially began in medieval Europe.

Common treatments for mental illness in the Middle Ages included trepanation, an early surgical procedure that involved making holes in the skull, either to relieve pressure or to free demons and spirits.

Enlightenment and modern era

Schizophrenia continued to be considered “madness” for hundreds of years. Until the mid-20th century, the treatment of schizophrenia was often experimental at best and cruel and inhuman at worst.

McDonough told Psych Central: “In the beginning, people [with schizophrenia] were considered incurable. They were often locked up in asylums. In Europe, people visited asylums as if they were going to the zoo.

McDonough continued, “Basically, [schizophrenia’s] the story is about not seeing human beings as human beings.

Philippe Pinel

At the end of the 18th century, the French physician Phillip Pinel helped pave the way for humane psychiatric treatment.

Pinel refused to chain his patients in a Parisian insane asylum and began practicing “moral therapy” in 1798, which included:

  • respect the person under psychiatric care
  • establish doctor-patient relationships based on trust and confidentiality
  • decrease in stressful stimuli or triggers
  • encourage routine activity and exercise

In treating people with mental disorders like schizophrenia with humanity, Pinel emphasized the need to:

  • hygiene
  • exercise
  • keep detailed history and records for each person

Kraepelin’s “precocious dementia”

In 1893, German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin coined the term “dementia praecox”, which means “premature dementia”, to describe schizophrenia.

Kraepelin was one of the first to describe schizophrenia as a progressive and irreversible biological condition with potential toxic causes. His contributions to the study of schizophrenia were much more intentionally scientific and naturalistic than many of his predecessors.

Schizophrenia in the 20th century

Swiss psychiatrist Eugène Bleuler coined the term “schizophrenia” in 1900, replacing the term “dementia precocious”. Bleuler also invented the famous “four A’s” of schizophrenia describing the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which were later replaced by the 5 A’s.

Institutionalizing people with schizophrenia was still common practice until the 20th century.

Common 20th century treatments for schizophrenia included:

  • insulin therapy for coma: repeatedly injecting large amounts of insulin to induce daily comas over a period of several weeks
  • Metrazol shock: a life-threatening form of shock therapy involving injections of Metrazol (pentylenetetrazole) to trigger seizures and coma
  • electroconvulsive therapy: stimulate or shock the brain with electricity to cause seizures
  • operation: including frontal lobotomy

Eugenics also played a dark role in treatments for schizophrenia in the 20th century. At the time, schizophrenia was considered a largely hereditary disease. Due to persistent stigma and misunderstanding, many people with schizophrenia have been sterilized, often without consent.

The first antipsychotics, such as Chlorpromazine, were developed and marketed in the 1950s. The availability of these drugs and similar drugs led to widespread deinstitutionalization in the 1960s. These drugs are still prescribed today and are considered to be “typical antipsychotics”.

The 1990s saw the development of more sophisticated antipsychotic drugs – atypical antipsychotics – to treat schizophrenia.

When diagnosing schizophrenia, psychiatrists generally use the DSM-5 criteria. Other diagnostic tools, such as self-report forms, are also used alongside qualitative clinical assessments, such as:

  • Communication disorders index
  • The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS)
  • BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale)
  • The mini mental state examination (“the mini”)

Schizophrenia is a treatable disease. Doctors and therapists now have a number of tools at their disposal to help people with this disorder find the best possible treatment plans for them. Many people with schizophrenia are able to manage their symptoms and lead well-balanced, fulfilling lives.

Medication

Antipsychotic drugs are often used on an ongoing basis in schizophrenia treatment plans to manage psychosis. Two classes of antipsychotic drugs are prescribed today for schizophrenia: typical and atypical antipsychotics.

Therapy

In addition to medication, there are many forms of psychotherapy that can help people with schizophrenia cope with symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Types of psychotherapy that can help schizophrenia include:

Comprehensive care

Comprehensive care programs are designed to integrate therapeutic approaches at several levels, such as:

  • individual
  • family
  • use
  • education
  • community participation

A 2016 study have found that comprehensive care programs may lead to greater success for schizophrenia than other treatments.

While many medical beliefs about schizophrenia have changed over time, cultural representations and attitudes have not caught up.

A huge stigma around schizophrenia still exists today, rooted in historical misconceptions and media representations.

The word “schizophrenic” could be used casually to describe the weather or the stock market. Worse yet, it can be used to define a person with the disease.

The pervasive myths often mistakenly associate schizophrenia with:

  • violence
  • a “childish” spirit
  • a “weak” character

Schizophrenia is often confused with “split personality” or “multiple personality disorder,” a separate condition now known as dissociative identity disorder.

For some people, the stigma surrounding schizophrenia can make the diagnosis uncomfortable. But as psychiatrist and author Elyn R. Saks wrote in her 2007 seminal book, “A diagnosis of mental illness does not automatically condemn you to a dark and painful life, devoid of pleasure, joy or fulfillment.

Mental health problems of the schizophrenic type have been recorded and treated since ancient times. Over the centuries, theories about the causes of disease have evolved from the spiritual realm to physiological means.

Treatments for schizophrenia have often included inhuman and cruel “remedies”, even as recently as the 20th century.

But thanks to evidence-based research and medical science, modern doctors and therapists have a plethora of effective tools to help treat schizophrenia.

If you live with schizophrenia, you are not alone. And if someone you love is affected by the illness, it can be helpful to learn how to support your loved one.

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New target can help protect bones as we age http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/new-target-can-help-protect-bones-as-we-age/ Thu, 06 Jan 2022 02:03:11 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/new-target-can-help-protect-bones-as-we-age/

image: Dr Meghan McGee-Lawrence
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Credit: Michael Holahan, Augusta University

AUGUSTA, Georgia. (January 5, 2022) – Drugs we take like prednisone can weaken our bones, just like aging, and scientists working to prevent both have some of the first evidence that the best target may not be the logical target.

They find that in aging bones, the mineralocorticoid receptor, best known for its role in regulating blood pressure, is a key factor in bone health, says Dr. Meghan E. McGee-Lawrence, biomedical engineer in the Department. of cell biology and anatomy. at the Georgia Medical College.

And drugs that block the receptor, like high blood pressure drugs spironolactone and eplerenone, can help protect bone cells, says McGee-Lawrence, corresponding author of the study in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.

Drugs like prednisone are glucocorticoids, which are best known for their role in reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune response, which is why they work so well for problems like irritable bowel syndrome and l ‘arthritis. But, like aging, they can also disrupt the continuing healthy dynamics of bone formation and destruction.

Our natural glucocorticoid levels increase with age, and bones, at least when we are young, have more glucocorticoid receptors than mineralocorticoid receptors. Glucocorticoids can actually cause stem cells to make osteoblastic osteoblasts, but it also causes those osteoblasts to store more fat, and too much fat in the bone, like anywhere on our body, is probably not. good and generally correlates with bone loss, McGee -Lawrence said.

Reducing the impact of glucocorticoid receptors therefore seemed like a logical way to protect bones.

Scientists at MCG were once surprised to find that loss of functional glucocorticoid receptors did not protect against bone loss in younger mice on a low-calorie diet. In fact, there was an increased accumulation of fat in the bone marrow and a worsening of osteoporosis.

This time, they were examining the impact of endogenous glucocorticoids in an aging model and found again that when the glucocorticoid receptor was blocked, older mice also had greater fat accumulation in the bone marrow and worsening of bone disease.

They also found that mice had smaller muscle mass, chose to move less than mice typically do, and had higher blood pressure.

Another surprise was that when they used drugs to inhibit the mineralocorticoid receptor, many problems were reversed.

“The only way we found to eliminate this osteoblast lipid storage was to inhibit the mineralocorticoid receptor with drugs,” she says, and luckily, due to the receptors’ clear role in blood pressure, there is already drugs that do.

“I think that means if we’re going to understand what these stress hormones, these endogenous glucocorticoids do, we can’t just think of signaling through a receptor,” says McGee-Lawrence. For older bones, she thinks the mineralocorticoid receptors may be a better target.

“We thought removing the glucocorticoid receptor would make it better, but it made it worse,” McGee-Lawrence said. “We believe the mineralocorticoid receptor may be a big part of what’s wrong with aging bones.”

Both receptors are members of the steroid receptor family, and mineralocorticoid receptors are believed to have equal affinity for mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids. The signaling pathways may be different in younger and older individuals, she notes.

McGee-Lawrence and his colleagues already have evidence that bone expression of mineralocorticoid receptors increases, potentially significantly, with age. They have had mixed results on whether glucocorticoid receptors decline with age and further explore what is happening with both levels of receptors and learn more about the role of mineralocorticoid receptors in bone, in particular. aging bones.

“We want to know what might cause bone cells to change the receptors they express and how they respond to it,” she says. “But there are a lot of things that happen with aging. We know inflammation changes with aging, so there are a lot of different clues that could be causing these things to change. “

The whole body impact that they have seen from their manipulation of receptors, such as higher blood pressure due to the removal of the glucocorticoid receptor, is also proof of the importance of bones as an endocrine organ, she says.

“By altering glucocorticoid signaling in bone, not only are we seeing changes in bone, but we are seeing changes in fat, muscle, adrenal glands, physical activity,” she said. which means that something of the bone communicates with all. these other bodily systems, an emerging role for research in its field.

In fact, the increased presence of fat in the bone marrow seen in osteoporosis has made it also considered a metabolic disease of the bone, just like obesity, especially the excess weight around. size, is considered a metabolic disease. Increased fat in the bone marrow has been associated with disuse, such as spinal cord injury, a high fat diet, taking glucocorticoids, such as steroids, and aging.

While fat is a ready source of energy for bone cells, too much can hinder bone cell formation. Scientists do not yet know whether cells are no longer using fat or if they are getting more fat, or both; they know that the accumulation of fat in bone cells coincides with less bone production, she reiterates.

“We’re trying to figure out exactly why these things are wrong so that we can choose the right path forward for a treatment strategy,” she says.

There is a lot of evidence in people that the synthetic glucocorticoids we take in pill form or injections can impact the bones, creating an unhealthy imbalance between the amount of bone made and the amount broken down.

One of the goals of the research at MCG has been to examine the impact on bones of our endogenous glucocorticoids, the ones we make, a less explored area. For years, McGee-Lawrence and his colleagues have studied bone-forming osteoblasts, which like most cells do not function optimally with age.

But it may be that even synthetic glucocorticoids also work through these alternative receptors to damage bone, meaning that trying to prevent their damage may also mean a different target, she says, again noting that the path may change as the person ages.

Interestingly, some other tissues known to have a lot of mineralocorticoid receptors inactivate glucocorticoids, which bone cannot, but that perhaps compensates by not having many mineralocorticoid receptors, at least in patients. young, she said.

The adrenal gland makes both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, which production becomes less well regulated with age.

The research was supported by the National Institute on Aging and the American Diabetes Association.

Read the full study.


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The Church of Alexandria inaugurates the Mardi Gras season on the feast of the Epiphany http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/the-church-of-alexandria-inaugurates-the-mardi-gras-season-on-the-feast-of-the-epiphany/ Tue, 04 Jan 2022 02:03:03 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/the-church-of-alexandria-inaugurates-the-mardi-gras-season-on-the-feast-of-the-epiphany/

On Sunday, the Church of St. Frances Cabrini celebrated the Epiphany which celebrates Jesus Christ and the visit of the Three Kings.

According to the Holy Bible, the Three Wise Men, or Magi, gave Jesus Christ gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh after following the Star of Bethlehem to find it. Epiphany is celebrated on January 6 and is also known as the Day of the Three Kings.

Traditionally, Epiphany brings the Christmas season to a close, said Father Chad Partain, pastor of the church.

Father Chad Partain, pastor of St. Frances Cabrini Church, blesses the kings cakes at an Epiphany feast on Sunday.  The Epiphany celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ and the visit of the Three Kings.  The Epiphany closes the Christmas season and inaugurates the Mardi Gras season.

“Part of our custom here in Louisiana is that as we close the Christmas season we enter the Mardi Gras season,” he said.

The traditional burning of the greens, during which parishioners gather Christmas trees and wreaths to burn, followed Mass. Boy Scout Troop 6 lit the fire.

“The burning of the greens is a custom of the Middle Ages where all the greenery used to decorate the church was removed from the church and then blessed and set on fire as a symbol of the light of Christ that shone in the darkness of our lives. in this darkest season of all, ”Partain said.

the "The burning of the Greens" followed the Epiphany Mass celebrated on Sunday at St. Frances Cabrini Church.  Christmas trees and wreaths were burned, symbolizing the light of Jesus coming into the world.  Boy Scout Troop 6 helped light the greens on fire.  Epiphany is celebrated on January 6, the twelfth night of Christmas.

On the feast of Epiphany, the queen’s soup was served in honor of the royalty of the local Mardi Gras brotherhoods that were recognized during the celebration.

The soup, Partain said, has its origins in New Orleans, where the soup was originally made for Rex’s Queen and served on the Twelfth Night.

“And tonight we’re serving this soup at the start of the Mardi Gras season,” he said.

Partain also blessed the Cakes of the Kings which are so called because of the Three Wise Men. Mardi Gras is March 1st. King Cakes are served during the Mardi Gras season and before the Lent season which begins on March 2.

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Tony Blair and Daniel Craig Join Scientists and Chief Medical Officers on UK Honor Roll http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/tony-blair-and-daniel-craig-join-scientists-and-chief-medical-officers-on-uk-honor-roll/ Sun, 02 Jan 2022 05:44:13 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/tony-blair-and-daniel-craig-join-scientists-and-chief-medical-officers-on-uk-honor-roll/

LONDON:

Scientists and medical leaders who led Britain’s response to the pandemic were named knights on Friday in the country’s annual list of New Year’s honors, which recognized the achievements of hundreds of people, the star from James Bond Daniel Craig to teenage tennis star Emma Raducanu. Queen Elizabeth II also made former Prime Minister Tony Blair a Knight Companion of the Noblest Order of the Garter, Britain’s oldest and longest standing order of chivalry. In another year dominated by the pandemic, officials said nearly one in five honors was for a service related to the coronavirus. Chris Whitty and Jonathan Van-Tam, England’s chief and assistant physicians, have been appointed knights. Jenny Harries, head of the UK Health Safety Agency, and June Raine, chief executive of the UK medicines regulatory body, have become ladies.

In total, the list of honors has recognized over 1,200 people in the UK this year, including scientists, actors, politicians, Olympic athletes and people who have worked to raise money for charity. . Craig was a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George – the same honor bestowed on Bond fiction – for his services to film and theater. The title is often given to diplomats, and Bond has been described as holding it in Ian Fleming’s film franchise and books. Elsewhere in entertainment, veteran actress Vanessa Redgrave is set to become a lady, while former Spice Girl Melanie Brown, known as Mel B, has been recognized for her work with the Women’s Aid anti-violence charity. domesticated. In sports, the 19-year-old US Open champion Raducanu becomes an MBE, or member of the Order of the British Empire.

“This year has been full of incredible surprises for me, so ending 2021 with this date is very special,” said Raducanu. Other award-winning athletes included Olympic champion cyclists Jason Kenny and his wife Laura, diver Tom Daley and swimmer Adam Peaty. British monarchs have bestowed honors under orders of chivalry since the Middle Ages. In modern times, nominations are submitted to the Cabinet Office of the government and reviewed by a committee before being forwarded to the Prime Minister and the Queen for approval. The knighthood given to Blair, who served as Prime Minister from 1997 to 2007, was separate from the main list as it was decided by the Queen and made without government advice. The Queen has also appointed two other members of the Order of the Garter: Camilla, the Duchess of Cornwall, and Baroness Valerie Amos, a Labor member of the House of Lords, who will become the first black person to be appointed to the order. .

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Covid-19 and Omicron News on New Years Eve: Live updates http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/covid-19-and-omicron-news-on-new-years-eve-live-updates/ Fri, 31 Dec 2021 14:19:54 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/covid-19-and-omicron-news-on-new-years-eve-live-updates/ Life was supposed to get back to normal this year. Instead, 2021 has turned into a sort of purgatory. But there are good reasons to hope 2022 will be better.

As this year draws to a close, we want to revisit the pandemic arc – and look to the new year that begins on Saturday.

The last year began with the escalation of a mass vaccination campaign, which many people celebrated by taking selfies after their bandaged arms were shot. In February, new cases of Covid-19 were in free fall and by spring the virus appeared to be in permanent decline. On June 2, President Biden delivered a speech on “a summer of freedom, a summer of joy.”

But then came a turning point in 2021: the emergence of the Delta variant.

It began to spread in the United States in late spring and has caused many more infections among those vaccinated than previous versions of the virus. The overwhelming majority of these emerging infections were mild, but they could potentially cause serious illness in the elderly and other vulnerable people.

Delta has also sparked new epidemics among the unvaccinated, and tens of thousands of them have died. Ultimately, the U.S. death toll from Covid in 2021 – over 475,000 – exceeded the 2020 toll. The increase is particularly tragic, epidemiologists say, as vaccine availability had made most of it. of these preventable deaths.

All in all, the year ending tonight has often been disappointing and gloomy.

In addition to the direct damage from Covid, disruptions to daily life – intended to slow the spread of the virus – have come at their own costs. Children fell behind in school and for many, isolation worsened their mental health. Adults also have a hard time; Americans’ blood pressure has risen, and drug overdoses have skyrocketed.

Even people who have avoided the worst damage of the pandemic are often fed up with it. And the latest variant, Omicron, has spiked cases again, to their highest levels yet, and raised the prospect that 2022 will be another year of pandemic purgatory.

At this point, it should be clear that there is no Covid guarantee. Perhaps future variants will emerge, even more dangerous than Omicron or Delta. But the most likely scenario is more optimistic, say many experts. As the New Year approaches, there are reasons to hope 2022 will turn out to be what people expected 2021 to be – the year Covid went from a pandemic to an endemic virus, not so different from the flu.

New evidence suggests that Omicron is definitely milder than previous versions of this coronavirus (either for intrinsic biological reasons or because of higher levels of population immunity). In South Africa and England, as well as New York, San Francisco and other parts of the United States, the number of hospitalizations is lower than doctors feared.

Omicron will always do terrible damage, especially among the millions of middle-aged and older Americans who are still unvaccinated, as well as the hundreds of millions of adults around the world who are not, due to the skepticism or unavailability of vaccines. Many hospitals are at risk of being overwhelmed in the coming weeks.

But when the current push starts to recede, it will likely have left some glimmers of hope. Omicron is so contagious that it will have infected a significant portion of the population, increasing the amount of immunity against Covid and helping to fight the virus.

Equally important, the world has more powerful weapons to fight Covid than there were just a few weeks ago: two new post-infection treatments, one from Merck and a more powerful one from Pfizer, which reduce the risk of hospitalization and death. With Pfizer’s treatment, the reduction is nearly 90 percent, according to early research trials.

All of this suggests that the United States could emerge from the Omicron wave significantly closer to the most realistic future Covid – a future in which it becomes an endemic disease that is a more normal part of daily life. He will always cause disease and death; a typical flu season kills an estimated 35,000 Americans, most of whom are older. For the foreseeable future, fighting Covid – through vaccination, treatment and research – will remain important.

But an endemic disease does not need to dominate life like a pandemic does. It doesn’t need to cause the kind of social isolation and public health issues that Covid has experienced over the past two years.

If the United States does reach that point in 2022 – as it seems likely – the next New Years Eve will be much more satisfying than this one.

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Ghislaine Maxwell convicted http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/ghislaine-maxwell-convicted/ Wed, 29 Dec 2021 22:12:00 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/ghislaine-maxwell-convicted/

Ghislaine Maxwell was convicted on Wednesday of sex trafficking charges, ending the federal case in which she was accused of aiding Jeffrey Epstein in his decade-long program of grooming and sexually assaulting girls aged Barely 14 years old.

The Associated Press reported that Maxwell was convicted of five of the six federal charges against her. She is now facing years in prison.

In the government’s closing argument on December 20, US Deputy Attorney General Alison Moe described Maxwell as a “dangerous” woman who “preyed on vulnerable children.”

“Maxwell was a sophisticated predator who knew exactly what she was doing. She performed the same playbook over and over again, ”Moe said. “She manipulated her victims and prepared them for sexual abuse. She has caused deep and lasting harm to young girls. It’s time to hold her accountable. “

The 60-year-old daughter of a British media mogul, Maxwell is the former girlfriend and longtime partner of Epstein, the former financier and convicted sex offender, whose death in prison pending trial on federal sex trafficking charges on August 10, 2019, was ruled as suicide. With his death occurring before he faced a jury, Maxwell’s case marked a milestone in a saga that spanned decades, attracting only renewed attention after a series of articles. in the Miami Herald highlighting how the justice system failed to deal with women who said they were being abused.

She was arrested on July 20, 2020, after missing from the public eye for more than a year. (The FBI tracked Maxwell to Bradford, New Hampshire, using data and contact details from her cell phone.) She was considered at risk of absconding and has been held without bail since her arrest. She was convicted of conspiracy to induce minors to travel to engage in unlawful sexual acts, conspiracy to transport minors with intent to engage in criminal sexual activity, transporting a minor with intent to engage in criminal sexual activity, conspiracy of sex trafficking and sex trafficking of a minor. The jury found her not guilty of inducing a minor to travel to engage in unlawful sexual acts, the AP reported.

“I want to salute the bravery of the girls – now adult women – who stepped out of the shadows and entered the courtroom,” US Attorney Damian Williams said in a statement after the verdict was announced. “Their courage and willingness to face their attacker made this case and today’s outcome possible.”

Maxwell had pleaded not guilty to all counts and refused to testify, saying “she did not need” to do so because “the government has not proven her case beyond a doubt reasonable”.

During the three-week trial, four women testified that Epstein sexually assaulted them when they were between the ages of 14 and 17, and that Maxwell helped prepare them and sometimes participated in the abuse herself. According to prosecutors and victim testimonies, Maxwell and Epstein were looking for vulnerable young girls – especially those in need of money, with single mothers and tough family lives – and made them feel special and cared for, taking them to do shopping and going to the movies, offering to pay for school and asking them questions about their lives.

Maxwell and Epstein were extremely wealthy and had many famous and powerful friends. One of the victims said she introduced her to both Donald Trump and Prince Andrew when she was 14, but did not charge either of them with misconduct. The former Epstein pilot said Trump and Prince Andrew had been passengers on the private jet, as had Bill Clinton, actors Kevin Spacey and Chris Tucker, Senators John Glenn and George Mitchell and violinist Itzhak Perlman.

Maxwell would serve as a normalizing presence during the meticulous grooming process, bringing up sexual subjects, being naked or topless around them and encouraging them to give Epstein massages. These massages were how Epstein typically initiated sexual contact with his victims – often with Maxwell in the room and instructing them how to touch him, to make the teens feel like what they were doing to them was normal, the women said. . The sexual abuse escalated after that, often several times a week for years, with the girls sometimes being flown in Epstein’s private jet to visit him in his various homes.

Maxwell was frequently present at these encounters, the women said, prompting them to perform sex acts with Epstein. At times, Maxwell was also actively involved in the sexual abuse – three of the witnesses said she touched their breasts. One said Maxwell made her wear a schoolgirl outfit to serve Epstein’s tea, and another said she was forced to participate in group sex encounters with the couple and others people.

“It made me confused because it didn’t feel right to me,” said one of the victims, who testified under the pseudonym Jane. “When you’re 14, you have no idea what’s going on.”

This is precisely what made Maxwell “the key to the whole operation,” said Moe, the prosecutor, in her closing argument.

“Epstein couldn’t have done it alone,” Moe said. “A middle-aged, single man who invites a teenage girl to visit his ranch, to come over to his house, to fly to New York, is scary. This sets off the alarm bells.

“But when this man is accompanied by a chic, smiling, respectable woman who is suitable for his age, that’s when it all starts to seem legitimate,” she continued. “And when this woman encourages these girls to massage this man, when she acts like it’s just okay for the man to touch these girls, it lures them into a trap. This allows the man to silence the alarm bells and get away with assaulting girls.

Throughout the trial and in their oral argument, defense attorneys tried to discredit the witnesses’ testimonies, questioning whether their memories of the abuse were wrong or even downright made up. They also repeatedly accused the women of only looking for money, pointing to the fact that all four had already received important settlements from a compensation fund for Epstein’s victims.

They also claimed Maxwell was innocent of anything Epstein might have done, suggesting she was being treated like a scapegoat because he is no longer alive to face the consequences.

In defense argument, lawyer Laura Menninger hammered home these points, saying women have “mistaken memories” and their “stories have changed dramatically over time.” She refined minor discrepancies and details the accusers weren’t sure about, even claiming one was “like an actress who forgot her lines.”

“As we said from the start, Ghislaine Maxwell is not Jeffrey Epstein,” Menninger said. “She is on trial here for being with Jeffrey Epstein. It might have been the biggest mistake of his life, but it wasn’t a crime.

In its rebuttal, the government urged the jury not to be “distracted by [the defense’s] absurdity.”

“It does not matter [the accusers’ stories] corroborate each other, not to mention the mountain of evidence that supports these four people, the defense desperately wants you not to believe these women, ”said Assistant US Attorney Maurene Comey. “So they throw whatever they can think of on the wall to see if something will stick, but if you think about these arguments a little bit, you’ll see they just don’t hold up.”

Comey hit back at the defense’s attempts to discredit the accusers’ memories, saying it would be like believing that “these four women had a huge false memory which turned out to include details about the accused preparing them for the same. way, using the same playbook.

“Some things that you never forget because they are etched in your brain forever,” she said.

The defense also described the idea that Maxwell – a staple in Epstein’s life – was just unaware of the abuse as a “laughable borderline.”

“Of course she knew that her boyfriend, when he spent time with teenage girls… he did it because he was attracted to them, because he wanted to have sex with them,” Comey said. “The suggestion she did not know borders on the absurd. “

Comey closed his rebuttal by calling on the jury to “use common sense” and believe the testimony of the four women who testified.

“The accused never thought that these teenage girls would have the strength to report what had happened to them. In her eyes, they were just garbage, under her, ”Comey said. “These girls would never resist a powerful couple like Jeffrey Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell – and if they ever did, who would believe them?”

“But the accused did not count on these teenage girls who became the women who testified in this trial – women who would be ready to take a stand and speak the truth about what happened,” he said. she declared.

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A Study on the Health Information Needs of Women in the Age of Menopause | BMC Women’s Health http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/a-study-on-the-health-information-needs-of-women-in-the-age-of-menopause-bmc-womens-health/ Tue, 28 Dec 2021 02:29:27 +0000 http://karolingischeklosterstadt.com/a-study-on-the-health-information-needs-of-women-in-the-age-of-menopause-bmc-womens-health/

Demographic characteristics

A total of 301 women aged 48 to 55 completed the questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 51.5 ± 2.53 years. Just over half of the women were aged 48 to 51 (m= 152, 50.5%). Most of the participants were married (m= 226, 75%) and had no university degree (m= 176, 58.5%. Table 1 presents the demographic characteristics of the participants.

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the women studied

Levels of knowledge, interest and needs

More than half of the participants rated their level of knowledge about menopause as “enough” (m= 155, 51.5%. More than a third of the participants were “somewhat” interested in obtaining information (m= 123, 41%). Less than half of those surveyed said they ‘rarely’ need to research information about menopause (m= 136, 45%) (see Table 2). The results of the chi-square test show statistically significant relationships between age group and level of knowledge and between level of education and levels of knowledge and interest (p<0.05) (see table 2).

Table 2 Frequency of responses on the level of knowledge, interest in obtaining and the need to seek information on menopause

Information needs

Table 3 presents 42 pieces of information that women may need to know about menopause. The most frequently needed information was that related to breast cancer (m= 209, 69.5%), hot flashes (m= 200, 66.5%), cervical cancer (m= 194, 64.5%, non-hormonal therapies for menopausal symptoms (m= 192, 64%), laboratory tests (m= 189, 63%) and joint and muscle pain (m= 188, 62.5%. The least frequently needed information was related to consultations to reduce or quit smoking (m= 76.25%), infertility (m= 84, 28%), male sexual problems (m= 89, 29.5%), women’s sexual problems (m= 115.38%), hair and nail problems (m= 130, 43%) and consultations on the exercise (m= 130.43%).

Table 3 Frequency of “yes” responses to items of information that women may need to know about menopause

The average number of selected data items in all categories (except consultations) was higher in the 52-55 age group than in the 48-51 age group (p<0.05). The average number of items of information selected in all categories (except consultations) was significantly higher for widowed women than for married women. Also, compared to married women, divorced women sought more information about diseases, menopause symptoms and treatments (p<0.05). Single women needed more information about treatment. Women with a university degree needed more information on all categories than those without (see Table 4).

Table 4 The negative binomial regression model for comparing the differences between the average numbers of pieces of information needed

Sources of information

Table 5 shows that 15 sources were used to obtain information. The most frequently used sources were the audiovisual media (m= 171, 57%), obstetricians (m= 165, 55%), friends (m= 157, 52%), family (m= 157, 52%) and the Internet (m= 153.51%). The least frequently used sources were religious groups (m= 22, 7.5%), workshops (m= 28.9%), pharmacists (m= 29, 9.5%), nurses (m= 49, 16.5%) and educational videos (m= 60.20%).

Table 5 Frequency of Sources Used to Acquire Information About Menopause

There were statistically significant relationships between age group and use of written sources, audiovisual media, telephone consultations, family, friends, obstetricians, midwives, pharmacists, nurses and specialists in traditional medicine or herbalists (p<0.05). Significant relationships were also found between marital status and seeking information from audiovisual media, the Internet and family members, and between educational status and seeking information from written sources, the media. audiovisuals, educational videos, the Internet and groups (p<0.05).

Difficulty finding information

Table 6 shows seven challenges women face when seeking information about menopause. The most common challenges faced by participants were not knowing how to properly access information (m= 115, 38%) and not being aware of reliable sources of information (m= 108, 36%). The least common problems were symptoms of menopause (m= 67, 22.5%) and limited access to information (m= 82, 27%).

Table 6 Frequency of difficulty finding information about menopause

A statistically significant relationship was found between age group and the following two challenges: contradictions between different sources and limited access to information (p<0.05). Significant relationships were also found between marital status and knowledge of information sources and between education level and not finding enough information and limited access to information (p<0.05).

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